With all its advantages, fMRI has been a boon to cognitive neuroscience researchers. Unless otherwise stated, it is the technique used to document areas of the brain activated by different mental activities, in chapters ahead.
A variety of other brain scanning techniques exist. oxandrolone 10mg MEG (magnetoencephalography) directly detects weak magnetic fields in small patches of nerve cells. As of 2002, it is still prohibitively expensive for most researchers. Other techniques like R-TOI (Real-Time Optical Imaging) provide additional ways to measure brain activity, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the method of choice for visualizing white matter in the brain.
The human nervous system, with its billions of nerve cells, is often described as “the most complex system in the known universe.” It starts as a tube of cells in the embryo, rapidly developing three distinct parts called the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. As the forebrain develops, it folds into wrinkles called convolutions. This allows a great surface area to be packed into the limited space of the skull. Human brains have noticeably more convolutions than oxandrolone 10mg brains of other species.
One way to avoid observer effects is to use unobtrusive measures (Webb, Campbell, Stanley & Sechrest, 1966) in which the subject is not aware of being observed trenbolone or tested. An unobtrusive study of parent/child interactions in a department store might use video records from security cameras. Unobtrusive measures are used to prevent the observer effects that may occur when a person knows he or she is being observed.
Webb, Campbell, Stanley, and Sechrest told how a museum wanted to measure which of its exhibits was attracting the most interest from visitors, but they did not want to bother visitors with a questionnaire. They came up with a clever unobtrusive measure: they examined the amount of wear on the floor tiles by each exhibit. When the tiles in front of an exhibit showed more wear and tear, they could assume more people were stopping there to look at the exhibit.
Sometimes differences between groups of people are interesting in themselves. Researchers who study abnormal psychology find it significant when a mental disorder occurs in only one culture, not others. This suggests that the disorder may involve a belief system or genetic or environmental condition peculiar to that culture. On the other hand, if a mental disorder (like schizophrenia or depression) occurs in every culture, that suggests it is due to genes or conditions common to all humans.
One type of measurement effect is called an observer stanozolol effect. It occurs when subjects alter their behavior because an observer is present. For example, a developmental psychology student might decide to study parent/child interactions by bringing video equipment into homes and recording the behavior of parents and children. The presence of an observer is likely to change the behavior of both parents and children. Similar problems affect every television documentary about particular societies or cultures: it is always possible that the presence of a camera changes behavior.
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